Category Archives: TRANSPORT

Does rejection of ‘Boris Island’ spell an ill wind for London?

Copyright Heathrow Airports Ltd

Copyright Heathrow Airports Ltd

Controversy over the proposed location of a new runway serving London soared to new heights this week after the government’s Airports Commission rejected plans for a new hub airport in the Thames Estuary to the east of UK capital.

The plans – dubbed ‘Boris Island’ are the brainchild of Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, who has reacted furiously to the decision that now leaves proposals for a new third runway at Heathrow as clear front-runner on the Commission’s short-list. A new second runway at London Gatwick is another, less favoured contender, as is an extension of an existing runway at Heathrow.

Airports Commission chair, Sir Howard Davies, says of the decision: “We are not persuaded that a very large airport in the Thames Estuary is the right answer to London’s and the UK’s connectivity needs.

“While we recognise the need for a hub airport…there are serious doubts about the delivery and operation of a very large hub airport in the estuary. The economic disruption would be huge and there are environmental hurdles which it may prove impossible, or very time-consuming to surmount. Even the least ambitious version of the scheme would cost £70 to £90 billion with much greater expenditure involved than in other options – probably some £30 to £60 billion in total.”

Copyright Foster + Partners How the thwarted Thames Estuary hub airport might have looked.

Copyright Foster + Partners
How the thwarted Thames Estuary hub airport might have looked.

Where the wind blows

In a column written for the UK’s Telegraph newspaper, Johnson rails against the fact that the way ahead now appears to be open for expansion of Heathrow after the country’s upcoming general elections in May 2015. (The UK government vowed not to bring in the Heathrow option during its current term of office.)

He warns: “Heathrow is already by far the noisiest airport in Europe, about a hundred times worse than Paris. A third runway will mean that there are more than a million people in the city affected by noise pollution of more than 55db – well over a third of all the victims of such aircraft noise in the whole of Europe.

“It will mean more of the medical problems associated with such pollution – stress, heart disease, etc; more struggling in school; vastly more road congestion and pollution in west London.”

Heathrow does indeed find itself in the unusual position of being a major airport situated to the west of a city, with the UK’s prevailing westerly winds blowing air pollution straight into the lungs of the capital. And its asthma and allergy suffers.

And Johnson is not the only one upset. Architects, Foster + Partners, worked alongside him to create the masterplan for the Thames Estuary proposals.

In a strong statement issued to the press, practice founder, Lord Foster, asserts: “I predict that Londoners will be scathing in their condemnation of today’s [this week’s] announcement, when confronted with the inevitability of the blighting influence of Heathrow – the risks, noise and environmental impact of overflying London – and its inability to cope with predicted growth.”

He describes adding a third runway at Heathrow as ‘merely a short term fix’ that will inevitably lead to a fourth runway in order to maintain international hub status.

He then draws a contentious conclusion: “The pattern of the most competitive emerging economies is to replace the old and obsolete and go boldly forward with the new, an opportunity today’s decision denies this country. The outcome of this process calls into question the validity of the Commission.”

Foster + Partners also claims that the Commission significantly overestimated the costs, and that independent estimates show that the new hub would cost ‘about £5 billion more when compared to expansion at Heathrow and would be faster to build’.

Hoping to befriend Boris…

However, not everyone is unhappy that Heathrow’s plans appear to be getting closer to take-off. The airport’s CEO, John Holland-Kaye, comments: “We have always agreed with the Mayor that Britain needs a successful hub airport to compete in the global race for jobs and growth. Heathrow is now the only hub left in the race. We would like to work with the Mayor to deliver Heathrow expansion in a way that benefits the whole country while reducing noise impacts for local people compared to today.”

Holland-Kaye wrote an open letter to Johnson echoing these sentiments, just prior to the Commission’s announcement on 2nd September. In the same letter, he also makes the case against Gatwick, stating: “Gatwick is different, it serves the short-haul and holiday market. We have nothing against Gatwick but you have rightly identified that its claim that it can deliver the same benefits as a hub airport is ‘a sham, a snare and a delusion’. I agree with you when you say a second runway at Gatwick would not make a bean of difference to the global connectivity we need.”

Copyright Heathrow Airports Ltd How Heathrow would look if a third runway is built.

Copyright Heathrow Airports Ltd
How Heathrow would look if a third runway is built.

However, in this fiercely polarised debate there are those who robustly back Gatwick. The point-to-point airport’s chief executive, Stewart Wingate, argues: “We believe Gatwick has the strongest case. It is the only option left on the table that can be delivered with more certainty than either of the Heathrow options, and it can be delivered without the significant environmental impacts expansion at Heathrow would inflict on London. It can be delivered faster than any other option, and at low cost and low risk.

“Furthermore, expanding Gatwick will ensure the UK is served by two successful world-class airports. It can liberate hub capacity at Heathrow and open up the opportunities for affordable long haul travel to emerging markets for the benefit of everyone.”

An article in the UK’s Guardian newspaper seems to agree, venturing: “Let’s not assume (at least yet) that a giant stitch-up to favour Heathrow is the inevitable outcome. In a world of necessary compromises, Gatwick still looks the least bad option.

“The argument that the UK must have a single ‘hub’ airport – meaning Heathrow – to make flights to deepest China viable has always seemed wildly overstated. Heathrow struggles to explain why so many short-haul holiday flights, carrying few transit passengers, still crowd its terminals. If we must have a new runway, Gatwick, the only airport capable of providing Heathrow with stiffer competition, looks the best answer’.

GATWICK TWO RUNWAYS

Time for action

Whatever final choice the Airports Commission makes next year, the urgency is indisputable. A report, The Nub is the Hub, from the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), also issued in the run-up to 2nd September, cautions: “With the UK’s hub capacity at Heathrow already full, the UK is falling behind on direct flights to emerging markets.

“The report highlights that by drawing heavily on transfer passengers, the UK’s EU competitors with their own unconstrained capacity are creating connections to new destinations within the BRICS such as Xiamen in China and Recife in Brazil, as well as links to the major markets of the future, like Peru, Indonesia, Taipei and Chile.”

Katja Hall, CBI Deputy Director-General, concludes: “The [UK] Chancellor has set businesses ambitious targets for increasing the UK’s exports, and there is simply no way of achieving these goals without upping our game in emerging markets.”

By Gail Taylor

Groundbreaking new composite bridge swings into place in the UK

Photo © Atkins

Photo © Atkins

What is believed to be the first bridge of its type in the UK has just been installed over the River Frome at the village of Frampton Cotterell, near Bristol. It is scheduled to open for use by the public this September.

The new composite road bridge has been designed by global consultancy, Atkins, which has adapted technology normally used to build advanced passenger aircraft. The wider project team has also included The National Composites Centre, Bristol University, CTS Bridges, Fibreline Composites and SKM.

Photo © Atkins

Photo © Atkins

Atkins hopes the bridge could help pave the way for a new generation of structures which cost up to 25% less than their concrete and steel equivalents over their lifetime, and, if adopted more widely, could save millions of pounds in installation and maintenance costs. Western Europe currently spends around £5 billion per year of taxpayers’ money maintaining and rebuilding its tens of thousands of bridges.

Composite bridges are equally as strong as steel or concrete bridges but lighter in weight, making them easier to transport from the offsite factory at which they are assembled.   They are also quicker to install, reducing the need for lengthy road and railway closures and the knock on disruption for residents and businesses these cause.

This type of bridge will also be more resilient against frost, extreme temperatures and de-icing salts, which will significantly reduce the frequency of maintenance checks and the cost of maintenance over the bridge’s lifetime by at least 50 per cent.

Illustrative costs of composite bridges versus more traditional materials

Illustrative costs of composite bridges versus more traditional materials

James Henderson, senior consultant at Atkins, explains, “The new bridge at Frampton Cotterell is at the forefront of an exciting new phase in civil engineering techniques. The strength and lightweight nature of composites have allowed commercial aircraft to fly further, faster and more economically.

“Having gained this knowledge and expertise, we wanted to see where else the technology could be used to deliver similar benefits. Our initial idea was to look at bridge building, a form of engineering which has largely been using the same methods for centuries.”

Atkins is an official engineering services provider to the UK’s National Composites Centre and is looking into the advantages of using composites across other engineering projects including London Underground train doors, nuclear infrastructure, gantries and catenaries and wind turbines.

By Gail Taylor 

Written By admin 
August 29, 2014 12:58 pm
Posted In Bridges

Consultation begins on new £1.3tn infrastructure proposal for London

A new report from the Greater London Authority (GLA) has revealed the capital’s strategic infrastructure investment requirements to 2050. Consultancy, Arup has been working closely with the GLA to draw up the £1.3 trillion plan, entitled “London Infrastructure Plan 2050 – A Consultation”.

Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has just launched the report – representing the start of consultation – in Barking, East London, declaring that its contents were “a real wake-up call to the stark needs that face London over the next half a century”.

With London’s population growing by 2,000 people every eight days, Johnson is concerned that massive investment in infrastructure is needed in order for London to keep its place among the elite of world cities.

The report examines seven sectors from transport, waste and energy to open spaces and broadband, and spells out the infrastructure needs of London over the next thirty-five years to cope with a growing population.

Housing and transport combined represent nearly 80 per cent of the investment needed to 2050. Between them they are estimated to have a funding gap of close to £135 billion.

New rail infrastructure comprises a major element of the plans. Featuring in the proposals are blueprints for a new orbital metro-style railway around London, which according the UK’s Guardian newspaper has been dubbed the “R25” in City Hall.

zonethreeorbital

A series of new river crossings in addition to those already currently planned is also proposed, along with further Crossrail lines.

Alexander Jan, project director at Arup, commented, “Investment activity will be needed on an industrial scale not seen since Victorian times. But it is not all about tunnels, railways and power transmission.

“Cleaner air, natural flood protection and places for Londoners to walk and cycle are central to the city’s quality of life and urban sustainability. And a major increase in housing provision would address one of the most pressing needs of Londoners.”

A consultation on the London Infrastructure Plan 2050 will now run for three months and the Mayor is expected to publish a final report in early 2015.

By Gail Taylor

Written By admin 
August 01, 2014 13:09 pm
Posted In Metro, TRANSPORT

Gates for third new lock reach Panama Canal expansion site

Photo courtesy of Panama Canal Authority

Photo courtesy of Panama Canal Authority

The Panama Canal expansion has reached another important milestone with the transfer of the first gates to the new locks complex on the Atlantic side. The first of the four gigantic gates that will serve this, the third lock, has now been installed.

The gates left Trieste in Italy by ship on 18 May 2014, and have now joined four others that were delivered during the summer last year. The remaining eight gates planned for the project are scheduled to be delivered by next year.

Italian-Spanish consortium GUPC (Groupo Unidos per el Canal SA) is in charge of the project, with MWH Global appointed to lead the design with TetraTech (USA) and Iv-Infra (Netherlands). The gates have been built in Italy by the Salini-Impregilo group.

Photo courtesy of Panama Canal Authority

Photo courtesy of Panama Canal Authority

Each of the lock gates is 57.6m long, 11m wide, 30m tall and weighs in at a whopping 3,000 tons. Instead of being hinged, the new gates – which are hollow – will slide, opening or closing in a time of 4 to 5 minutes.

To date, about 77% of the work on the expanded Panama Canal has been completed. Although it was hoped that work would be completed this year to coincide with the Panama Canal’s 100th anniversary, it is now projected that the enhanced canal will open in 2016.

Once open, it will allow the passage of Post-Panamax ships between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Post-Panamax vessels are nearly 400m long, and capable of transporting 13,000 containers – nearly triple current capacity.

By Gail Taylor

Written By admin 
July 24, 2014 11:03 am
Posted In Ports, TRANSPORT

General Electric to buy Alstom’s energy business for $17bn

The Board of French engineering company, Alstom has given the green light to US energy giant General Electric to purchase its energy business at a price of $17bn. In order to protect the country’s interests and facilitate the deal, the French government will purchase a 20% stake in Alstom from its main shareholder, Bouygues.

Siemens and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries also submitted acquisition proposals, but General Electric’s proposal won unanimous approval from Alstom directors. General Electric will now acquire Alstom’s power grid business, renewable operations, and nuclear steam turbines to form three joint ventures. In doing so, it hopes to open up its operations in China and Africa.

Conversely, General Electric (GE) is to sell its railway signal business to Alstom, who are the manufacturers of France’s TGV high speed trains. The deal is expected to close in 2015.

General Electric’s Chairman and CEO, Jeff Immelt said of the deal: “We will now move to the next phase of the Alstom alliance. We look forward to working with the Alstom team to make a globally competitive power and grid enterprise. We also look forward to working with the French government, employees and shareholders of Alstom. As we have said, this is good for France, GE and Alstom.”

According to a Reuters report, the two companies already have history. In Alstom’s home town of Belfort, 2,500 of its employees have worked for more than a decade ‘building electrical turbines just a few dozen metres away from a GE plant, whose workers they meet each day at lunchtime in a shared canteen’.

The article continues: “GE’s history in Belfort stretches back even further, to 1928, when one of its subsidiaries, Thomson-Houston, merged with the Socieate Alsacienne de Construction Mecanique to form Alssthom, then spelled with an ‘h’”.

Written by Gail Taylor

Edinburgh’s new trams on track at last!

Lesley Hinds, transport convener for Edinburgh City Council discusses the lessons to be learned from one of Scotland’s most controversial – and delayed – new public transport projects. The city’s new tram system finally opened three years late on 31 May 2014 and is now operating between York Place in the city centre and Edinburgh Airport.

Credit: Edinburgh Trams One of Edinburgh's 27 new trams makes its inaugural journey. Each cost around £2 million.

Credit: Edinburgh Trams
One of Edinburgh’s 27 new trams makes its inaugural journey. Each cost around £2 million.

Beset with disruption, bitter disputes, and angry traders, the project was not only late but came in at double the budget and with only half the originally planned network being realised. So great has been the outcry for answers as to what went wrong that last week Scotland’s First Minister, Alex Salmond, ordered a judge-led inquiry to investigate.

In the meantime we spoke to Councillor Lesley Hinds, who shared her personal views, not only on what went wrong, but how in the past two years the ailing project has been dramatically turned around. Some of her insights are gold dust to other cities thinking of commissioning a new tram system whilst avoiding the same pitfalls.

To start with, as is so often the case, the news isn’t all bad. Cllr Hinds reports that in their first week on the tracks, the new trams have attracted some 130,000 passengers. On one day alone 27,000 people used the new transport system (although admittedly it was partly down to boy band, One Direction, performing in town).

Credit: Edinburgh Trams Crowds throng to be aboard the first tram journey.

Credit: Edinburgh Trams
Crowds throng to be aboard the first tram journey.

Edinburgh’s tram system was granted funding by the Scottish Parliament to the tune of £500 million in 2007. The City Council formed an arms-length company called Transport in Edinburgh (TIE) to manage the project. TIE then appointed Bilfinger Berger/Siemens as main contractor.

Off the rails

Things soon went badly wrong and a protracted and entrenched dispute arose between the two. At one point, the roads were up and the contractor’s tools were down, while local businesses complained of resulting financial losses and even closure.

We asked Cllr Hinds what caused the problems. “In my personal opinion there were three reasons. The first and main one was the contract [between TIE and Bilfinger Berger/Siemens] which I believe was flawed. It was not detailed enough.

“In my experience, with any large project, if you want to ensure its success, all the details must be sorted out, everything must be tied down, before you sign a contract with any contractor. What happened in this case is that the contract then started to change after it had been signed. So I think there are many lessons to be learned from that.”

Cllr Hinds cites political conflict as the second reason, as at that time local government was a coalition between Liberal Democrats who were pro the Edinburgh tram project, and the SNP who were against. This, she feels, meant that no-one had outright control.

And it didn’t stop at local level. Cllr Hinds continues, “Thirdly, there was a change in administration of the Scottish government where the SNP came into minority control following a vote. Labour, Conservative, Lib Dems, and Greens voted to approve the £500 million to be spent on the Edinburgh trams, carried against the minority SNP administration. As a result, the Scottish government then withdrew the Transport Scotland government agency’s experts and advisors from the project. So what you had was the government signing off the money but then having no direct supervision or input.”

A change in approach

After all the stalling, the project did finally gather steam over the past two years. We asked Cllr Hinds how and why this happened, and, unsurprisingly, it all came down to improved communication. “About two years ago [around the same time Cllr Hinds became the new transport convener] a new chief executive, Sue Bruce, came into the council as a new appointment. One of the tasks she was given by all the councillors was obviously to sort out the tram project, which had come to a total impasse.

“She convened a meeting. Key councillors and the contractor sat down together for at least a week and they came up with a proposal that they both signed up for. That mediation has led to a very, very structured process of any decision-making or dealing any disputes on either side. If there’s a dispute there is a clear way of taking it through process at regular twice-weekly meetings. It stops things festering. It’s put on the table and gets resolved.”

Two years ago, Cllr Hinds was given a revised budget that raised the figure to £776 million* – which has been kept to – and a revised schedule to open the tramline in summer 2014. As she points out, they’ve managed to open slightly earlier, and she credits the strict structure and process they now work within for this.

tran-route

Credit: Edinburgh Trams
Route map

Looking forwards

And what of the retailers and businesses that suffered along the way? Might things start to improve for them now? Cllr Hinds says, “Yes. There is evidence that people are already starting to come back into the city centre. Even those that didn’t want the tram initially are thinking that now it’s here they’ll use it and just get on with it and seem reasonably happy.

“However, you can’t underestimate the damage done to the reputation of the city of Edinburgh.” To help address this, a £1 million campaign named ‘This is Edinburgh’ was launched last February to promote the city’s attractions and encourage people back into the centre after the tram disruption.

Finally, we asked Cllr Hinds what her advice would be to other cities considering a tram system. She replies, “Listen to others who have done it, find out and learn. There will always be disruption when you’re putting in an on-road system, so think about ways of mitigating that and keeping businesses and people on-side. And bear in mind, some people will just be anti-tram whatever happens, although once they’re up and running that can change completely!” Nice in the south of France and Ireland’s capital, Dublin are both good examples of this particular phenomenon.

“But probably the most important point, to me, is the contract – communication between contractor and client – and to get all-party support if possible. Manchester didn’t face anything like the challenges we’ve had to because they had backing from all sides from the outset.”

* Edinburgh City Council financed the additional funds through a loan it will pay interest on for the next 30 years. Taking into account this interest, the total cost of the tram project is estimated to be nearer £1 billion.

Written by Gail Taylor

Written By admin 
June 10, 2014 12:04 pm
Posted In Rail

Could the UK’s first carbon-fibre bridge spark a revolution in civil construction materials?

please note: this is a representative image of a composite footbridge, not the actual bridge being installed.

Please note: this is a representative image of a composite footbridge, not the actual bridge being installed.

 

In an exclusive interview in the UK’s national newspaper, The Telegraph, Chris Hendy, head of bridge design for WS Atkins, reveals details of what is believed to be the first ever bridge in the country to be constructed using carbon-fibre.

The 8-metre bridge will be installed later this year in the rural village of Frampton Cotterell in Gloucestershire and is to span a drainage channel. Further details about the bridge will be released once it is in place and open to the public.

Hendy tells The Telegraph that “while the composite materials – which are made from layers of compounds bound together in moulds with resin to produce extremely strong but light materials – have been around in other sectors for some time” – namely in aerospace and Formula 1 – “they have yet to make the leap into civil construction”.

The article explains that although using composites can be almost twice as expensive as traditional bridge materials, they do not corrode as concrete and steel do, so maintenance costs over the lifespan of the bridge are dramatically reduced. According to The Telegraph, western Europe spends 5 billion euros (£4.1 billion) every year on fixing corrosion on infrastructure.

Hendy goes on to say that composite technology could also cross into other new areas such as non-rusting oil rigs. However, he concludes the interview by stating, “We’re not saying make the whole world out of composites. Just where it’s most efficient.”

Written By admin 
June 05, 2014 14:22 pm
Posted In Bridges

Could Google’s latest driverless vehicle transform our obsession with car ownership?

Google has last week unveiled the latest incarnation of the driverless cars it has been developing for the past four years. Unlike earlier versions, pedals and steering wheels have been eliminated altogether in the new pod-like prototype cars, so the driver is no longer able to take control manually (apparently a good thing as we tend to make bad decisions in emergency situations, according to Google’s test experiences).

The vehicles – which will run on electricity – are simply equipped with a button for ‘start’ and a panic button for ‘stop’. Sensors with 360-degree vision and advanced robotic engineering do the rest, theoretically far more reliably and safely than humans.

And rather than having to own a car, people would simply summon a driverless car-cum-taxi via a mobile phone app. All extraordinary stuff: bad news for parking wardens, very good news for hospital emergency departments and the environment. It also promises greater economy.

Artistic sketch of what Google's vehicle prototype will look like

Artistic sketch of what Google’s vehicle prototype will look like

The New York Times cites some interesting research showing that “Manhattan’s 13,000 taxis made 470,000 trips a day. Their average speed was 10 to 11 mph, carrying an average of 1.4 passengers per trip with an average wait time of five minutes.

“In comparison, the report said, it is possible for a futuristic robot fleet of 9,000 shared automated vehicles hailed by smartphone to match that capacity with a wait time of less than one minute.

“Assuming a 15 per cent profit, the current cost of a taxi service would be about $4 per trip mile, while in contrast, it was estimated, a Manhattan-based driverless vehicle fleet would cost about 50 cents per mile.”

The UK’s national Sunday newspaper, The Observer, also makes some important points, stating, “Google is, par excellence…an engineering company. And engineers dislike the untidy irrationality of real life.”

The article describes the status quo of one car per owner, the expense, the space required – not to mention the danger to life and the environment – saying that “engineers see governments and local authorities driven to distraction, if not to bankruptcy, by the costs of providing roads and infrastructure to support our motoring habit…and they think: this is nuts. So, say Google’s engineers, why don’t we stop thinking of cars as possessions and start thinking of them as services?”

Written By admin 
June 05, 2014 11:32 am
Posted In Road/Traffic

The great French train fiasco: new trains too big for old stations

The French government is red-faced and furious as news emerges that 2,000 new trains purchased by French national train operator, SNCF, at a cost of €15 billion are too large to enter 1,300 regional stations. As the UK’s Independent newspaper puts it, “The country that brought the TGV high-speed train to Europe has accidentally created another first – the TFT, or the Too Fat Train.”

It appears the problem has arisen because national rail operator, RFF, provided SNCF with measurements taken from platforms built less than 30 years ago, overlooking the fact that many of rural France’s platforms were built over 50 years ago when trains were smaller.

According to a report in the UK’s Guardian newspaper, SNCF has however admitted that it failed to verify the measurements itself before ordering the new stock from train engineering companies, Alstom and Bombardier.

To rectify the situation, the 1,300 stations in question will now be modified to fit the new rolling stock. These adaptations will cost RFF in the region of €50 million to complete, representing about 1 per cent of its annual budget for modernisation and repairs.

According to the BBC New Europe website, French Transport Minister, Frederic Cuvillier blamed an “absurd rail system” for the problems. “When you separate the rail operator from the train company, this is what happens.”

Interestingly, the Independent draws attention to the fact that “a draft law is due to come before the French parliament next month to merge, or re-merge, the two state-owned bodies from next year. Both SNCF and RFF support the plan.”

Written By admin 
May 22, 2014 14:34 pm
Posted In TRANSPORT

Work commences on bridge for Qatar’s newest planned city

Artist Impression 1 (© Lusail Real Estate Development Company)

After last year’s commission of the Lusail Pedestrian Bridges in Qatar, Octatube is now taking their part of the project into the installation phase. The design has been drawn by San Diego-based Safdie Rabines Architects.

Since 2006 the Lusail Real Estate Development Company has started to develop a 38 sq km site 15 km north of Doha. This new project is one of the largest commercial projects in the Gulf States.

The theme of Lusail, Qatar’s future city, has everything to do with water. The concept for the two pedestrian bridges is that of a necklace being draped along the ring of the island marina. After the realisation of a mock-up the first embedded elements are now on site.

Building Site (© Octatube)

The two cable-stayed bridges are brought to life with structural glass floors, aluminium louvre canopies, glass kiosk canopies and glass balustrades. Including the ramps, both bridges are approximately 200m long and span 90m from one quay to the other. Each bridge is fully illuminated, stimulating leisure activities during cooler evening temperatures.

Artist Impression 2 (© Lusail Real Estate Development Company)

The main structure of the bridges with the pylons, cables and concrete decks is built by FCC Construccion. Because of the marine environment, all structural elements are executed in duplex stainless steel. Octatube’s scope holds more than 200 tons of this high grade steel. It is used for the production of cantilevering glass floor structures, canopy structures, baluster posts and a number of other elements.

The project features 2,000 sq m of laminated glass, divided into walkable areas, overhead glazing and the guardrails. The glass throughout the project has bespoke fritting patterns and all along the guardrails both the glass and the walkways will be illuminated by integrated LED lighting.

Artist Impression 3 (© Lusail Real Estate Development Company)

 

Written By admin 
May 15, 2014 12:15 pm
Posted In Bridges